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Other Interest Page

General Description

This page contains other interests of mine.  I am interest in settlements, practices and characterstics of the iron-age era in the Rhine-Moselle area, which are often referred to as Late Hallstatt, Early Latène period.  I have attempted to provide "useful" information, which may help others, who share similar interests.  Some of this information has been gathered from other web pages and I have made appropriate references whenever possible.  However, if I have omitted important links and not considered relevant sources, please don't hesitate to email me at mpaulus@ucsd.edu

I am in the process of compiling all of the locations of interest that cover the above mentioned period between 700 BC and 300 AD in the following Google map:

View Larger Map

General Items of Interest
Reconstructed Tree-ring Graph (1500 - 0 BC) Different Cultures during the Urnfield Era    
Mythical Places during the 1st Millennium BC
Grave mounds of the Hunsrück-Eifel-Culture
Tumuli of the Hunsrück-Eifel-Culture Lösskopf - an Iron Age Burial Site Bruder Tönnes Mound - A Hallstatt Nobleman Burial Site Im Kehrbusch
Brey Tumuli      
Fortified Structures during the 1st Millennium BC
Dommelberg - an Iron Age Fortification Altburg Bleidenberg Druidenstein
DommelbergCrossS.jpg (613225 bytes)
Schwedenschanze Fortification Hochkessel    
Roman Influence between the 1st century BC and 4th century AD
Mercury Temple - a Roman and Celtic religious site Schüllerhof Roman Villa Mühlheim Roman Villa Remstecken
Tabula Peutingeriana      


Late Iron Age - Celtic History of the Rhein-Mosel region.

Reconstructed Timeline from 1500 BC to 0. Data from archaeological tree rings have been graphed to show the approximate climates during these times.  

The original data Siberia data can be found here.

The Scotland data  can be found here.

Central Europe about 1200 BC.

Figure from a bronce flagon from the Glauberg grave.

I am particularly interested in the cultural and spiritual historical period between 1500 - 0 BC of the Rhein-Mosel area.  As indicated above, this period is generally considered to be part of the iron age and comprises the Urnfield, Hallstatt, and Latène period.   Unfortunately, there are not many written records of this period from the Rhein-Mosel area with the exception of Julius Caesar's descriptions in "De Bello Gallico" and Tacitus' account in "Germania".

There are some fascinating cultural connections between Central European Cultures in the Rhein and Mosel region and Indian and Hindu Cultures, which are only beginning to be explored.  For example, there is a rich emerging tradition of pre-Christian spiritual practices in this area, which appear to have some connection to the Brahman tradition of the Indian sages (see this for some Celtic spirituality or here for mythology).  

Although much of this connection is speculative in nature (for example see some interesting discussion here), I predict that there will be a renewed interest in the spiritual connections between central Europe and Asia that date back before the introduction of Christianity.




This is a segment of the "Tabula Peutingeriana" from the Bibliotheca Augustana, which depicts the main roads of the roman empire.  The Tabula is dated to approximately 400 AD but is thought to contain material from earlier Roman periods.



Iron Age - Celtic History: The Goloring

Digital Surface Model of the Goloring, original can be found here

Goloring from above, original can be found here.

One of the most important cultural sites of the iron-age era and imbued with a range of spiritual and historical facts and myths is the Goloring. The Goloring derives its name from the Genovefa Legend but goes back to the time of the urnfield culture dating back to about 800-1200 BC. 

 Unfortunately, most of what has been written about the Goloring is in German and, therefore, may not be accessible to the wider audience.  The key reference is the book by Dr. Röder, published in 1948, which is currently out of print.  However, Wingarden made the manuscript available on the internet in German.  I have begun to translate it into English. The translation is admittedly rough (I will refine it in the near future) at this time, but I hope this will stimulate some interest in this fascinating topic.

The Goloring by Josef Röder (the original German version)

Pictures of the Goloring (Spring 2005)


Tumuli of the Hunsrück-Eifel-Culture

A number of settlements have been excavated along the Rhein and Mosel river and in the mountain ranges of the Hunsrück and Eifel.  During the late Hallstatt and early Latene era, these settlements developed a remarkable cultural influence throughout Central Europe, which is referred to as the Hunsrück-Eifel-Culture.  H.H.Wegner published a nice summary here (in German), I have translated this summary in English:

Wegner: The tumuli of the Hunsrück-Eifel-Culture


Iron Age - Celtic History: Lösskopf Burial Site

Map of Lösskopf is a burial site 

The Lösskopf is a burial site  located at the edge of the extensions of the Hunsrück just south of the city of Koblenz.

Pictures and a short description (Spring 2006)


Bruder Tönnes Mound: Another Early Celtic Burial Site

Unfortunately, not much is available online about the Bruder Tönnes Mound.  The name "Tönnes" probably is a modern translation of Tumulus (see short description by J Röder below).

Pictures and a short description (Spring 2006)


Celtic-Roman Spiritual Artifacts in the Rhein Hunsrück Region

Reconstruction of a Wicca Temple..

Another fascinating relic of the Celtic-roman time period is the Mercury temple just south of Koblenz.  This temple is an example of a Celtic-Roman blend of Pagan spiritual practice. Unfortunately, very little history is available online.

Pictures of the Mercury Temple (Summer 2005)

Late Iron Age - Celtic History: Dommelberg 

Remaining wall fortifications.

The Dommelberg is a settlement located at the edge of the extensions of the Hunsrück just south of the city of Koblenz.

Pictures and a short description of the Dommelberg settlement are here (Fall 2005).

Latene Period: Schwedenschanze

Aerial view composite of fortified area.

The Schwedenschanze bei Koblenz is - in many ways - the Mosel analog settlement of the Dommelberg and is located just south of the city of Koblenz.

For a more detailed description see here.

Early Roman Period: Schüllerhof

This is an excellent example of a Roman farm during the 1st - 3rd century AD. The farm was located close to the main connection between Koblenz and Mainz, one of the major North-South traffic arteries.

For a more detailed description see here.

 Late Latène Fortified Settlement: Druidenstein


A late Latene period settlement along the Mosel river, which is surrounded by a Celtic wall.

For a more detailed description see here.

Late Latène Fortified Settlement: Bleidenberg


Recently, several excavations have been carried out on Bleidenberg aimed to recover the Celtic Post-wall constructions.

For a more detailed description see here.

Wagon Burial Mound: Im Kehrbusch

The grave mounds "Im Kehrbusch" are part of the Archaeological Hiking Path adjacent to Bruttig-Frankel, a small community along the Moselle river.  These mounds are exquisite examples of burial traditions during the Hunsrück Eifel culture in the 5th to 3rd century B.C.


For a more detailed description see here.

Reconstruction of a Celtic Village: Altburg

This is a reconstructed Celtic village from the period of 350 - approximately 45 BC, i.e. during the Latène period up to the occupation of the Roman forces by Caesar.  The collection of building signifies the different building styles, using post-based buildings to move the main building area above ground, for more details, see here.

Roman Villa Mühlheim-Kährlich

This is an example of a Villa Rustica, which was maintained from the 1st to the 4th century AD.  For more details, see here.

Roman Villa Remstecken

This is another example of a Villa Rustica in the vicinity of Koblenz, which produced dehydrated goods during the 2nd and 3rd century AD and was eventually abandoned during the 4th century AD.  For more details, see here.

Grave Mounds Brey

This is a group of grave mounds of the Hunsrück Eifel Culture.  Most of these date back to the 4-5th century BC. For more details, see here.

High Level Fortification Hochkessel

This is an example of an elevated fortified area, which was maintained during the HEK era and was probably used to generate iron bars for the trade that intensified during the 4-5th century BC between the central Euroean Celtic areas and the Mediterranean.  For more information see here.

Personal Reads

Translated Excerpt from "Deutschland und die Moselaner. Heitere Betrachtung mit hintergründigem Ernst" von Alfons Krisam




High School Reunion 6/2005

These were pictures, which had been sent to me by ex-class mates from the Gymnasium of the Karthause in Germany.

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last edited: 05/22/2009